Why are ionophores toxic to horses?

Ionophores have a pharmacologic effect by changing the flux of certain electrolytes across cell membranes. The doses of ionophores normally used in feed for other animals can be highly toxic to horses. Cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and the neurologic system are affected by ionophore toxicity.

Are ionophores toxic to horses?

Ionophores are absorbed in the digestive tract and when toxic amounts are ingested, the heart, skeletal muscle, and also the kidney and liver can be negatively affected. Horses are very susceptible to ionophore toxicity; the lethal dose is less than 1/10th of the amount that can be safely fed to cattle.

What is the treatment when a horse consumes ionophores?

There is no antidote for ionophore poisoning, but veterinarians can initiate symptomatic and supportive care. Some horses might die regardless of treatment, others might recover over days, weeks or months and return to performance, and some will develop permanent heart damage and never fully recover.

Why is monensin toxic to horses?

If monensin is so beneficial for cattle, why does it harm horses? Horses are highly sensitive to ionophore toxicity. Monensin disrupts the transportation of sodium and potassium in cells. Consuming even small amounts of monensin can lead to heart failure and can be lethal for horses.

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Is Bovatec bad for horses?

Bovatec®, with the scientific name of lasalocid, is most often used for cattle in pasture or forage situations and can also be fed to sheep. … Rumensin, however, can be toxic to sheep. The two products, though beneficial for the animals they are meant for, can be very dangerous for horses.

Is Amprolium toxic to horses?

AMPROLIUM, MERCURY, POSTANESTHETIC HYPOXIA

Seizures and blindness may result. We have observed five adult horses that have been anesthetized for various surgical procedures that from 5 hours to 7 days after recovery from the anesthesia rapidly develop severe prosencephalic clinical signs.

How much urea is toxic to horses?

Dietary exposure of unacclimated ruminants to 0.3–0.5 g/kg of urea may cause adverse effects; dosages of 1–1.5 g/kg are usually lethal. Urease activity in the equine cecum is ~25% that of the rumen, and horses may receive NPN as a feed additive.

Is lasalocid safe for horses?

For poultry and ruminants, these feed additives are common and safe to use. Horses are the most sensitive domestic animal to monensin toxicity. The lethal dose for most horses is 2-3 mg/kg (equivalent to about 1,000 mg (1 gram) for the average horse). … Lasalocid appears to be less toxic to horses compared to monensin.

Can horses eat pig grower?

Monensin, also known under its trade name, Rumensin, is extremely toxic to horses. It is one of the most common accidental poisonings in horses, and yet often goes unrecognized. Farm animals such as horses, cows, chickens and pigs can and commonly do share similar feeds.

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Can pigs have Bovatec?

In general, in cases of ionophore intoxication pigs are off feed, weak, depressed and don’t have a fever. Ionophores are a group of antibiotics used as feed additives to control bacterial and coccidial infections and to promote growth in poultry, cattle and swine. … Some pigs may have elevated respiratory rates.

What can kill a horse?

The most common acute toxins that kill horses in a few hours to 36 hours include:

  • Botulism – often associated with haylage feeding.
  • Ionophore toxicity – associated with feed contamination.
  • Yew toxicity – associated with horses consuming clippings from this common ornamental shrub.
  • Poison-hemlock – found in swampy areas.

Is monensin safe for horses?

Horses are particularly susceptible to monensin toxicity: the median lethal dose is only 2.0 to 3.0 mg/kg. Reports of monensin poisoning in horses have appeared since 1975.

What in chicken feed is toxic to horses?

It’s extremely harmful to the horses whether it’s medicated or unmedicated. The medicated chicken feed contains Amprolium, Coccidiostat, and Lasalocid as main ingredients. These ingredients on frequent consumption can kill the horses.

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