The test uses a blood sample, and can determine is a horse is infected within two days. Other types of test are also used to confirm a positive result, but the Coggins test is internationally recognized as the gold standard in diagnosing and helping control EIA. There is no vaccination against EIAV.
How do you test for EIA?
Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID). Also known as the Coggins test, AGID is the most widely accepted procedure for the diagnosis of EIA. The test detects antibody against the viral p26 antigen (major core protein). It is the only procedure that has been statistically correlated with the presence of EIA virus in blood.
What are the symptoms of EIA in horses?
What are the clinical signs? The disease is characterized by recurrent febrile episodes, anemia (low red blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low blood platelet count), inappetance, depression, rapid loss of weight and edema (fluid swelling) of the lower parts of the body, and sometimes incoordination.
What happens if a horse tests positive for EIA?
When an equine has a positive result on an official test for EIA, the animal must be placed under quarantine within 24 hours after positive test results are known in order to permit confirmation testing and to prevent further exposure of other equines.
How is Coggins test performed?
The Coggins test checks for Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) antibodies in the horse’s blood. Blood samples must be sent to a state approved laboratory. This test is often needed to take your horse to a show and whenever you transport your horse across state lines.
What does EIA test for?
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), also known as enzyme immunoassays (EIA), are tests designed to detect antigens or antibodies by producing an enzyme triggered color change. All of the EIAs performed in the Diagnostic Serology Section are known as solid-phase assays.
Is EIA curable?
Despite testing and measures to eradicate the equine infectious anemia virus, EIAV, more than 500 new cases are identified each year in the U.S. There is no cure for EIA. Although most horses show no symptoms, they remain contagious for life, endangering the health of other horses.
How common is EIA in horses?
“Removal of these test-positive subjects from the population by the beginning of the 1980s resulted in only around 0.5% test-positives; today the incidence is less than 0.01%.” In 2001 testing identified 534 EIA-positive horses, whereas in 2015 only 69 horses of nearly 1.5 million tested were confirmed positive.
How do you prevent EIA in horses?
To reduce your horse’s chance of becoming infected with EIA:
- Reduce exposure to biting flies through proactive management and insect control.
- Never reuse needles or syringes; only use sterile needles and licensed blood products.
- Use a sterile needle each time you puncture a multi-dose medication bottle.
What are the symptoms of Coggins?
Equine Infectious Anemia (Coggins’ Disease)
- high fever.
- labored breathing.
- pounding heartbeat and exhaustion.
How can you tell if a horse has Coggins?
To perform a Coggins test, a licensed veterinarian must draw blood from your horse and send it to an accredited lab for analysis. The lab will conduct a test to detect the EIA antibody (a protein that allows the body to recognize the EIA virus; this will only be present if the horse has had the EIA virus).
What type of knot should you use when tying a horse to a rail or stocks?
MANGER TIE – This quick-release knot is frequently used when tying a horse to a post or a fence rail. Also called a reefers knot or a bowknot, it is a good non-slip knot (like a square knot) but has the advantage of being more easily untied when it has been pulled tight—such as when a horse has pulled back on the rope.