Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a viral disease affecting only members of the equidae family (horses, ponies, zebras, mules, and donkeys). There is no vaccine or treatment for the disease.
How do you prevent EIA in horses?
Prevention is key to stopping the spread of EIA. Use a sterile needle, syringe, and IV set for all injections or treatments. Disinfect dental, tattoo, surgical equipment, lip chains, and bits thoroughly between horses. Remove all debris and blood with soap and water before disinfection.
Is EIA curable?
Despite testing and measures to eradicate the equine infectious anemia virus, EIAV, more than 500 new cases are identified each year in the U.S. There is no cure for EIA. Although most horses show no symptoms, they remain contagious for life, endangering the health of other horses.
What happens if a horse tests positive for EIA?
When an equine has a positive result on an official test for EIA, the animal must be placed under quarantine within 24 hours after positive test results are known in order to permit confirmation testing and to prevent further exposure of other equines.
How common is EIA in horses?
“Removal of these test-positive subjects from the population by the beginning of the 1980s resulted in only around 0.5% test-positives; today the incidence is less than 0.01%.” In 2001 testing identified 534 EIA-positive horses, whereas in 2015 only 69 horses of nearly 1.5 million tested were confirmed positive.
What are the symptoms of EIA in horses?
What are the clinical signs? The disease is characterized by recurrent febrile episodes, anemia (low red blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low blood platelet count), inappetance, depression, rapid loss of weight and edema (fluid swelling) of the lower parts of the body, and sometimes incoordination.
How do you test for EIA?
Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID). Also known as the Coggins test, AGID is the most widely accepted procedure for the diagnosis of EIA. The test detects antibody against the viral p26 antigen (major core protein). It is the only procedure that has been statistically correlated with the presence of EIA virus in blood.
Is EIA contagious?
There is no vaccine or cure for EIA and infected animals remain contagious for life. Due to the danger to other horses, this is a reportable disease with federal and state regulations in place for infected horses.
How can you tell if a horse has Coggins?
To perform a Coggins test, a licensed veterinarian must draw blood from your horse and send it to an accredited lab for analysis. The lab will conduct a test to detect the EIA antibody (a protein that allows the body to recognize the EIA virus; this will only be present if the horse has had the EIA virus).
Is Coggins treatable?
There is no specific treatment or vaccine for EIA. Treatment consists of supportive therapy of intravenous fluids and vector control. Infected horses should be promptly isolated. There is no cure for EIA, so prevention is the key to controlling the disease.
How do you treat EIA in horses?
How is equine infectious anemia treated? There is no treatment or “cure” for EIA. If you suspect that your horse may be infected, call your veterinarian immediately, move the horse at least 200 yards away from other horses and reduce exposure to biting flies. Equine infectious anemia is a reportable disease.